paragliding training center
by Had Robinson
The ignition system on the Top 80 is both critical to its operation and is the most difficult to service. Other paramotors have much more robust ignition systems that rarely need service. (Before you run off to buy one of them note that most of them have other demons that are much worse.) Precisely set timing and high spark voltage will ensure that the Top 80 has maximum power output. Adjustments to the timing can also dramatically affect the life of the engine. Do not attempt to time the engine unless you have good mechanical skills. With $100 of easily available tools, pilots can check the timing of their engines. Thankfully, this is not needed unless the flywheel is removed.
It is rare that the coil fails. Most of the time it is the secondary wire (the long thick wire that goes from the coil to the spark plug) that fails. Before continuing in this section, be certain that the secondary wire is not broken internally or the coil is not shorted by performing this test. Page down to the "Secondary wire and coil test". If the coil is shorted internally or the secondary wire is broken, it may still work at idle and midrange but as soon as load is placed on the engine, the engine will quit/fade.
The inner carbon core of the secondary wire eventually breaks from the severe vibrations of the engine. Over time (25-50 hours) the core burns back, forming an inner gap inside the wire which widens over time until the spark fails. At the same time, the internal voltages inside the coil increase and it will eventually short out and fail -- but it is a slow process. The secondary wire can be replaced, if necessary. If IDM (the Italian coil manufacturer) used better quality wire, this frustrating problem would not occur. As it it, they use the cheapest lawnmower grade coil there is and pilots have this frustrating problem.
Pilots should check the secondary wire before going to all of the expense and trouble of replacing the coil.
The Miniplane website specifies a gap of 0.30mm (0.12") but new engines from the factory have the gap set to 0.38 mm. IDM, the manufacturer of the coil and flywheel, specifies a gap of 0.35mm - 0.45mm. The bottom line is that the gap could be from 0.30mm - 0.45mm. Too great a coil gap will cause hard starting and slightly retard the spark. If the gap needs to be changed, see "Replacing the coil or changing the coil gap" at the end of this article. The gap is not a critical value, thankfully.
Do not waste time checking the coil if the fuel system has not been checked FIRST. Note: missing in the midrange is caused by too small a notch in the throttle plate which makes a rich mixture from 1/3 - 2/3 throttle. It can be modified. It is an annoying engineering defect in the WG-8 carburetor which is particularly noticeable flying above 4,000' MSL.
Checking the coil gap can be done without disassembling the engine. However, a feeler gauge with a narrow blade must be used. Ordinary feeler gauges will not fit in the tight space between the coil and the engine.
Checking the coil gap on the Top 80 without disassembling the engine. It is a good idea, however, to remove the muffler when doing this.
As the gap increases, the voltage output of the coil decreases (but only at low RPM) and the spark timing advances (fires later). Pilots will want the gap to be exactly as specified for maximum spark output when starting the engine and for the correct timing.
3/8" drive metric extra long hex bit socket set
3/8" drive metric hex bit socket set
1/4" drive metric deep socket set
miscellaneous mechanic's tools including a torque wrench
Most of these tools are available from Harbor Freight except the extra long hex bit socket set.
Parts (if replacing the coil):
Finger screws (new or modified)
5/32" medium rivet
Do not attempt this procedure unless you have a set of new finger screws or have modified them. DO NOT REUSE FINGER SCREWS UNLESS THEY HAVE BEEN MODIFIED.
This is the most difficult and time consuming routine service procedure with the Top 80 engine and will take about (3) hours for an experienced mechanic to do.
Miniplane has been supplying some coils that have one or both mounting holes machined .003" ± off so that the coil gap cannot be set correctly. This can be easily fixed by enlarging the holes slightly with a Dremel type tool with a grinding stone towards the outside of the coil. Do not enlarge the holes with a drill bit because it will likely short out the coil sheaves and ruin the coil. Pilots need to remember that these IDM coils are scooter/lawnmower grade and neither durable nor particularly well made and must be treated with care. Hopefully, Miniplane might someday specify a better coil that will last the life of the engine. Meanwhile, we have to deal with this headache.
1. Remove the exhaust system and then the engine from the frame. The exhaust system will be in the way if it is not removed.
2. Remove the cooling air duct. Reinstallation: Be sure it correctly placed. It should slide on easily and not jam. Reinstallation: Use a 5/32" medium rivet to fasten the secondary wire strap to the duct. Orient the strap so that it is between the rivet hole and the center of the engine.
3. Remove the starter. Be careful not to lose the lock washers.
4. Remove the finger screws. Unless modified finger screws were used, it will be necessary to grind down the ends of the finger screws so that the washers, pawls, and springs can be removed and a 10mm deep socket used to remove the screws. Only grind away just enough of the screw so that the washer pops off using a pair of pliers. DO NOT GRIND THE WASHERS -- YOU MAY NEED THEM SOMEDAY. Remove the pawls and springs. Remove the finger screws with 10mm deep socket along with the pawl holder and spacers.
Reinstallation: reference this page for more information on how to reinstall the finger screws correctly. Torque the screws to 10 Nm. Use a long piece of 3/16" flat steel plate x 1" to slip between the cooling fan and the cooling box to hold the flywheel from turning while torqueing the finger screws. Alternately, remove the redrive and hold the clutch with an oil filter wrench or a nylon strap. (See the clutch page, section C step 1 on how to use a strap to hold the clutch from rotating.)
Some have managed to loosen and remove the finger screws by getting a thin end-wrench on them. However, it is impossible to torque the screws to the correct value during reinstallation without having the pawls and springs removed. Some claim to be able to reinstall the finger screws with the pawls and springs attached -- but they invariably bend the springs and/or the spring stops and/or wreck the screws. Don't be a tool-monkey. If the cooling fan is not torqued down properly it can move enough to cause vibration at high engine speeds and carve holes where it attaches to the flywheel.
5. Replace the coil. Use a 5/32" bit to drill out the rivet head that holds the primary wire to the cooling box. Do it just enough so that the head of the rivet is removed. Do NOT continue to drill the actual rivet that is in the cooling box. Once the head of the rivet is removed, the clip and wire will pop off. Use a 1/8" punch (or equivalent) to punch out the rivet that is in the cowling. Reinstallation: When reinstalling the rivet, orient the clamp so that it faces the rear of the engine.
6. Remove the cooling box (cowling) along with the cooling fan. You will need an extra long 5mm hex bit to do this. Note: the cooling fan cannot be replaced, if needed, without removing the rivets that hold the cooling box together so be careful with the cooling fan. Reinstallation: Use BLUE threadlock on the (4) screws which hold the cooling box on the engine. Torque to 10 Nm. A magnet is handy when aligning these screws with their holes in the engine. Reinstallation: Use the new/modified finger screws to temporarily hold the cooling fan in place as it tends to get in the way and may be damaged when attaching the cooling box to the engine.
7. Remove the coil.
Damaged Top 80 finger screw due to installation without grinding the tips off and using an ordinary end wrench instead of a 10mm deep socket. Other parts of the starter mechanism were damaged, as well.
8. Put the new fiber washers on the coil mounting surfaces on the crankcase. If the old washers are used, align them carefully so that the machined surfaces on the crankcase and imprints on the washers line up. Use a small dab of rubber cement or RTV sealant to hold them in place. If the washers are misaligned it may change the alignment of the coil with the flywheel and the gap will not be uniform.
9. Attach the new coil with the secondary wire towards the TOP of the engine. Hand tighten the screws. Threadlock is not needed on these screws. The coil must be installed with the secondary wire towards the top of the engine or it will not work due to polarity of the electronics inside the coil. Note: the Mecafly illustration shows the coil installed incorrectly!
10. Adjusting the gap -- Two feeler gauges must be used. This is because the coil will rotate on one screw when the gap is adjusted on the opposite side. The slight rotation of the coil when it is moved to adjust the gap on one side will affect the other side.
Place a gauge between each end of the coil and the flywheel at exact location shown in the photo below. Set the gap to 0.38mm (0.015"). Thankfully, the gap is not critical to coil output at high rpm. The less the gap, the easier the engine will start. Be absolutely certain that the coil does not contact the flywheel!
The coil has two points where the gap must be checked between them and the flywheel (see photo below). The gap specified is the minimum between any part of the coil and the flywheel. Note the orientation of the coil -- the secondary wire is up. If it is installed upside down, the coil will not work.
Push the coil firmly against the gauges and snug up the mounting screws to (1) Nm or less. Check the gaps again to be sure they are correct. If all is OK, tighten the screws to the correct torque (4-5 Nm) and check the gap again. It will be usually somewhat less. As long as it is not less than 0.30mm, it will be OK.
If the gap is too great, the engine may not start as easily. If the gap is too small (< 0.30mm), there is the risk that the coil and flywheel might touch as the flywheel heats up and expands when the engine is run. If they touch, the coil will be ruined from a shorting of the iron sheaves.
The Miniplane service site ("accensione ignition" section) has some photos of the coil and where the gap should be measured if the above photo is unclear.
11. Reassemble the engine -- the reverse of the above steps starting at step #6.